The international partnership

Gran Sasso National Laboratory in Italy, owned and operated by the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), was the ICARUS detector’s first home. Under the leadership of Nobel Laureate Carlo Rubbia, the ICARUS collaboration pioneered the use of liquid argon to detect neutrinos. Using a beam of neutrinos created by CERN, the ICARUS detector hunted these elusive particles from 2010 to 2014, when that neutrino beam was shut down. The INFN and CERN teams then prepared the detector and shipped it to CERN in Geneva, Switzerland in 2014.
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) operates the world’s biggest physics machine, the Large Hadron Collider. CERN is also a major contributor to the U.S. neutrino program at Fermilab, and over the last two years a team from CERN and INFN has improved and refurbished the ICARUS detector, preparing it for its voyage to Fermilab. The effort included creating a new cryostat – the cold box containing the detector – as well as replacing many of the original components. With that work completed, CERN will ship the detector to Fermilab this summer.
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois, is the premier particle physics lab in the United States. A global leader in neutrino physics, Fermilab has launched a three-experiment program to search for a theorized fourth kind of neutrino, and ICARUS will be the largest of those three. Fermilab scientists constructed the new building on the Fermilab site where the detector will be installed, and partnered with CERN in the development of the cryogenic system for the detector. Fermilab’s neutrino beam will provide a steady stream of particles to the ICARUS detector, breathing new life into this groundbreaking machine.